Penile Cancer – What Do I Need To Know
This cancer is often diagnosed early in younger and younger men. That’s because male sexual behavior has changed radically in recent years, posing risks of HPV infection. One problem is also the lack of body hygiene, which also favors the development of the disease.
What is penile cancer
It is a malignant tumor that develops around the glans. Sometimes it occurs in the region of the foreskin or the body of the penis. Although statistics show that comparisons with other forms of penile cancer are rarely diagnosed, researchers are alarmed that the number of cases has increased by 20 percent in the last three decades. As mentioned above, the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection increases as a result of the frequent change of sexual partners as fewer and fewer people choose to have their children circumcised. For these reasons, this tumor is increasingly diagnosed in men younger than 60 years.
Causes of Penile Cancer
The exact causes for this type of cancer are not known. As mentioned in the article, HPV infection plays an important role, especially with viral types 16 and 18. They are the oncogenic variants of this virus, which increase the likelihood of disease by 6 times. This type of cancer most commonly affects men aged 45-55 years.
One factor that increases the risk of developing penile cancer is phimosis, which causes many chronic inflammations in men. According to medical data, more than 50% of men with penile cancer were diagnosed with phimosis earlier. The reason may also be leukoplakia, lichen or genital warts.
Smoking is also one of the risk factors. Toxic chemicals in cigarettes are excreted from the body in the urine. Accumulation under the foreskin causes changes in healthy skin cells that lead to cancer.
In addition, lack of intimate hygiene may be the cause of cancer development. The smegma – secretion of white and pasty that accumulates under the penis is an ideal place for bacteria and irritates the glans.
Symptoms of penile cancer
In the first phase, no symptoms appear and the diagnosis is difficult. Only after a while does a painless change in the shape of a tumor or a small skin lesion appear on the glans or elsewhere on the penis. Over time, this change becomes greater and there is pain, discomfort, difficulty urinating and bleeding.
Must be remembered!
The penis, especially in the early stage of the disease, can cause metastases in nearby lymph nodes, for example, in the groin. Other metastases occur sporadically.
Diagnosis of penile cancer
Diagnosis usually begins with a physical examination of the penis and lymph nodes. The next step is the removal of a sample from the tumor and a histopathological examination. A biopsy of the lymph nodes is also performed. The accompanying studies are abdominal and lymph node ultrasound examination as well as chest X-rays to determine if there are no distant metastases.
Therapy and prognosis
Se a doença está em estágio inicial, a alteração e os gânglios linfáticos inguinais, nos quais as células cancerígenas se desenvolvem, podem ser removidos. No estágio avançado, a solução radical é usada: uma penectomia, que é uma amputação do pênis. Deve-se notar aqui que a medicina moderna permite a reconstrução deste órgão. Após o tratamento, são necessárias visitas de controle sistemático. Se a doença não for tratada, a maioria dos homens morre no prazo de 2 anos após o diagnóstico.
Most important is prevention!
To prevent cancerous changes, the most important is personal care in the intimate area. It is much easier after circumcision, and that is why, in circumcised people, the likelihood of this type of cancer is lower.
Another method of prevention is vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18. This is the human papilloma virus that causes oncogenic penile cancer. Also, be sure to limit the number of sexual partners and use condoms.